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Glossary of Printing Terminology

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DAM
Digital asset management storing, retrieving and managing specific items of content (e.g. stories, pictures and templates) within a workflow, for use and re-use across diverse media.

Damping
The process of applying water to the lithographic plate on a litho printing machine.

Damping Roller
The roller on a printing machine that applies the moisture direct to the printing plate.

Dandy Roll
The roll on the wet end of a papermachine, in contact with the upper surface of the forming web, which is covered with a woven wire and usually carries a design to form a watermark.

DCS (Desktop Colour Separation)
An EPS-based image file format developed by Quark. DCS 1.0. Is a five-file format comprising four process separation files plus a low-resolution PICT preview DCS 2.0 can be used as a single or multiple-file format, containing any mix of process and spot separations, plus alpha channels.

Debris Paper
Dust that finds its way onto the offset printing blanket or plate.

De-Inking
Suitability of recovered paper for de-inking; depends on paper grade, printing process used, age of paper and other factors.

Delta E
A formula to calculate the difference between two colours, expressed in CIELab. The E is generally understood to mean ‘error’. See also CIELab colour difference.

Densitometer
Used to measure/monitor the density of ink when printing.

Density
The darkness of a printed image

Desensitising Area
An area on the surface side if a CF or CFB carbonless product, which has been rendered inert to producing a carbonless copy.

Device-Dependant Colour
A colour space that can be defined only by using information on the colour-rendering capabilities of a specific device.

Die Cuttability
Suitability of paper and board for die cutting into blanks of a given shape.

Digital Asset
Any digital media file has value, such as images, graphics, audio, video, Web designs, page layouts, text documents and marketing collateral.

Digital Asset Management
The practice of storing and retrieving digital or electronic files such as images, logos and marketing collateral in a centralised system. Particularly useful for printers who work on catalogue, brochure or corporate production.

Digital Paper
Paper specifically designed and optimised for digital technology.

Digital Printing
The printing process where an image is applied to the substrate directly from a digital file rather than using plates of film.

Digital Proofing
Ability of paper to retain its dimensions and its shape (a) despite changed in its moisture content under the influence of, for example, variations in the surrounding atmosphere, or (b) despite variations of the physical and mechanical stresses during printing and converting operations for use.

Direct Imaging (DI)
The process of directly imaging plates on press.

Direct to Plate (DTP)
see Computer to plate.

Display Papers and Boards
A wide range of coated papers and boards used for display and exhibition purposes.

Distribute and Print
Electronically forwarding a file and the printing the job at the point of delivery.

Distributing Rollers
The roller that move the ink from the ducts to the plate on a printing press.

DNG (Digital Negative)
Adobe’s proposed non-proprietary, industry standard format for unprocessed ‘camera RAW’ image data captured by digital cameras.

.doc
A suffix used to denote files created with the Microsoft Word word processing program.

Doctor
A blade like device, which rests on the up running surface of a roll in order to keep it clean by removing any foreign matter adhering to the roll. In flexographic printing, a rubber roller or steel blade applied to an anilox roll to control the amount of ink on the anilox.

Dot Gain
The increase in size of a dot in a tone print that taked place when it is printed, as compared with its size on the photographic positive or negative.

Double Bump
The application of two layers of ink to achieve greater opacity or more intense colour.

Double Coating
Coating of paper or board twice on one or both sides.

Doubling
The appearance on a printed sheet, locally, of two non-coincidental images obtained at one impression.

Downsample
To reduce the resolution size of a bitmap image by removing some of the dots and adjusting the colour of adjacent dots to maintain the integrity of the image.

Down Time
Non-productive time when a printing machine is being maintained or cleaned.

DPI
Dots per inch, a common unit of measurement to indicate the dot resolution of printers, scanners and computer displays.

Drawing Papers and Boards
These grades are manufactured from top quality pulps with special treatment of the furnish (see Cartridge). The best grades are tub sized and air dried, with sheet surfaces varying according to use.

Driers
Substances generally metallic compunds, added to an ink to increase the rate of drying by catalytic action.

Dry Coating
Coating method in which a binder is applied to the paper surface followed by dry coating pigment.

Dry End
The part of a papermachine where the drying of the paper is completed, usually by bringing the web into contact with a series of steam heated drying cylinders.

Dry Offset
A method of printing, as in the offset lithographic method, but from a relief plate, and without the use of a fountain solution.

Duct
The trough on a printing machine, usually including an adjustable blade, which contains the supply of ink and by means of which ink is presented to the duct roller.

Duct Roller
The cylinder in the duct of a printing machine which, in conjunction with the adjustable knife blade, regulates the amount of ink to the feed roller.

Duplex Cutting
The operation of converting a web of paper into sheets on a cutting machine equipped with two cross cut knives so that two different lengths of sheet can be cut simultaneously.

Duplex Paper and Board
Grade made from two different webs combined during the manufacturing process while still moist, without the use of adhesive. This combination may, for example, be two different webs of furnish, colour or substance.

Duplex Printing
Printing on both sides of a sheet.

Dusting
Accumulation of powdered paper on the non-printing areas of a blanket.

Dummy
An unprinted representation of the text pages of a book or magazine made by folding and collating sheets of the intended quality, size and grammage of paper so that an idea may be formed of the general appearance and thickness of the final result.