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Glossary of Printing Terminology

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Ecf (Elemental chlorine free)
A common definition for pulp bleached without using elemental chlorine. Originally any of the bleaching techniques for chemical pulp, when no molecular (elemental) chlorine is used.

Ecobalance
The calculated environmental impact of a product, like paper, from raw material extraction to the disposal of the finished product, allowing for emissions into the soil, air and water caused by transport, production, conversion. Energy production, the manufacture of additives and recycling.

Ecosystem
All living organisms- the plants, animals and microbes and their environment in a defined zone, e.g. the forest ecosystem.

Effective Resolution
The print resolution of a digital image after it has been enlarged or reduced by scaling its picture box in a page layout. Blowing up a picture box reduces the image’s effective resolution, while shrinking a picture box increases it.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
The electronic exchange of documents, such as invoices or purchase orders, commonly used between trading partners.

EMAS
Eco-management and audit scheme

Embossed Paper
Paper on which a raised and/or depressed design has been produced by pressure, generally between an engraved or otherwise patterned steel roll or plate and a paper or cotton backing roll or ‘bowl’.

Emissions
The release of impurities from a source such as industry and farming.

EMS Environmental Management System
Part of the management system of an enterprise. Under an EMS, all functions of a business from design to delivery are planned and controlled from the point of view of a sustainable environment. The primary objective of an EMS is to ensure that environmental matters are taken care of through a documented system and environmental effects are decreased in every function of a business in a way that is stated in its published environmental policy.

Emulation
When a PostScript RIP or EPS export filter is written using code which impersonates PostScript, it is said to be emulated. It is generally cheaper to emulate PostScript than license the real thing from Adobe.

Emulsification
Dispersion of water into the ink during printing. An excess of this may cause printing difficulties.

Emulsion
A mixture of dampening solution is dispersed in small drops in the ink.

Encoding
Characters that are printed, invariably on cheques, which contain iron, and which can be recognised by MICR automatic readers. MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Recognition.

ENGO
Environmental non governmental organisation.

Environmental Audit
An examination of the operations of a company, organisation or authority in relation to the environment, e.g. emissions, occupational health and safety and the use of resources. It is carried out by independent, trained environmental specialists or auditors.

EPS
Encapsulated PostScript, a PostScript- based file format for pictures which can then be conveniently imported onto a page layout. EPS is most commonly used for vector graphics but has partly been superseded by PDF.

Equilibrium Moisture Content
The moisture content of a paper that has reached a balance with the atmosphere surrounding it, ie in a condition in which it will neither give up nor absorb moisture.

Ethyl Acetate
An organic solvent, often used in conjunction with industrial methylated spirit, which is sometimes incorporated in ink formulations.

EU Eco Label
Also know as the EU Flower. The EU Eco Label a certification scheme designed to help end users across Europe distinguish more environmentally friendly products. The label is administered by the European Eco-Labelling Board (EUEB) and has the support of the European Commission. Member states of the European Union and the European Economic Area.

Euroscale
A standard that defines the process of sheetfed offset litho printing onto generic coasted paper using a European-wide standard for CMYK inks.

EXIF
A record of digital camera settings embedded into a JPEG image, listing data such as light meter information, exposure, aperture, flash strength; zoom and so on, for that specific shot.

Eye Mark
A printed line or block at the edge of a printed reel, highlighting print repeat. Used to trigger a ‘magic eye’ on converting machinery.