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Glossary of Printing Terminology

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Fangold
A web of paper folded into connected sheets by alternate folds across the web.

Fan Out
Widening of the paper web on the press due to dampering or printing pressure.

Fastness
Resistance of colour to fading.

Feather
The light falling on an image but which does not come from the subject

Feed Board
The surface on a printing machine over which the stock is conveyed to the lays.

Felt Mark
Imprint left on the paper by one or more of the felts used in making paper. Special effects can be introduced in this way

Fibre
Wood cell whose properties vary from one tree species to another; the main raw material for papermaking.

Filler
A material, generally white mineral matter such as china clay or calcium carbonate, which is added to the paper furnish to increase opacity, improve flatness and allow a smoother finish to be obtained.

Filling In
The spreading of the printed image on a sheet

Fine Paper
Fibre based paper usually containing less than 10% mechanical pulp, eg quality printing and writing paper. The point where the small unprinted spaces are obliterated.

Finish
The surface characteristics imparted to paper by mechanical means.

Flame Resistant Paper
Paper that has been given a treatment designed to give it a certain degree of non-flammability and/or of incombustibility.

Flatten
Rendering layered and transparent affects in digital artwork to a single bitmap image for output. Flattening often takes place within the final RIP.

Flexographic Printing
A method of relief letterpress printing using flexible rubber or photopolymer plates on web fed rotary presses.

Flocked Paper
Paper with velvet like smooth unglazed surface.

Flotation De-Inkin
De-inking process is which air is blown into a dilute fibre suspension. Ink particles adhere to the air bubbles and rise to the surface, where they are removed.

Fluorescent Paper
A white base paper or board coated with a mixture of fluorescent pigment and binder, the latter being used to key the former to the surface. The coating is activated by ultraviolet light, either by exposure to an ultraviolet lamp or to natural daylight.

Flush
To trim both covers and sections at the same time in binding.

Fly Sheet
A web of paper, frequently unprinted but not necessarily so, to which a form is attached for processing through continuous output printers.

Flying Splice
A device for carrying out a splice in a web of material without stopping the machine.

FM Screening
See Stochastic screening

FOGRA27
FOGRA is a European graphic technology research organisation that defines standards for the characterisation of offset, newspaper and screen printing presses. FOGRA27 (recognised as ISO standard 12647-2) is essentially an updated version of Euroscale.

Foil Blocking/Foil Stamping
The process by which extremely fine leaves of foil are impressed onto a paper, usually logos or company names.

Folding Boxboard
Although boxboards can vary in quality from grey board to high class board made from virgin fibre, the term is usually taken to mean white lined boards. They are made on multi layer machines, and the outer layers may be of different furnish to the centre layer.

Forest Land
Land with the capacity to produce at least 1 m3/ha of wood a year during one rotation.

Forest Stewardship Council
A neutral organisation that promotes responsible forestry and sustainability. It has defined principles for good forest management and allows the tracking of wood good its source all the way down the supply chain. The system of certification provides and assurance of sound environmental management practices.

Formation
The fibre distribution throughout a sheet of paper. The two extremes are described as ‘wild’ and ‘even’.

Fountain Roller
The roller on a printing machine, which initiates the supply of moisture to the damping system.

Fountain Solution
Water, with additives, for application to the lithographic plate on a printing machine.

Fourdrinier Machine
The most common form of papermaking machine, It forms a web in a continuous sheet on a horizontal, or near horizontal, forming surface. It is named after the Fourdrinier brothers who financed the first operational machine at the Frogmore Mill, Hertfordshire, UK in 1803.

FPO (For positional only)
Referring to a low-resolution version of a digital image which can be conveniently used in page make-up and only replaced with the original high-resolution version at the output stage.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
The program used to transfer files through the internet from one computer to another.

Furnish
The mixture of various materials blended in the stock or raw matrial from which paper and board is made. The chief constituents are wood or other pulps, sizing material, fillers, dyes and other additives.

Fuser
Part of a non-impact printing system that fuses toner or powder on to paper.