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Glossary of Printing Terminology


ICC (International Color Consortium)
A body established in 1993 to standardise colour management on digital systems.

ICC Profile
Characterisation information of a device’s colour rendering and reproduction capabilities, saved as a file.

ICM (or ICM 2.0) Image Color Management
The built-in colour management architecture in MS Windows.

Image Colour Enhancement
Permits a wide range of colours to be printed beyond the four colour process.

Used to convert digital files into film.

Image Editor
Software program for opening and editing bitmap images. Popular image editors include Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Fireworks and Jasc Paint Shop Pro.

Imitation Art Paper
Loaded with china clay and highly finished to give an art paper appearance. True art paper has a china clay coating applied to a conventional base.

Imitation Parchment
A tough greaseproof paper.

The process of placing the pages of a document into their relative positions on the printing plate, according to the size of the plate and the number of pages. The printed sheet can then be folded and trimmed and is ready for binding.

Impressed Watermark
Semi-genuine watermark made in the paper machine press section using engraved rolls while the web is still wet.

Impression Cylinder
The cylinder of a printing machine that supports one surface of the sheet to web while the other surface receives its printed image from a co-operating blanket cylinder.

Index Board
This grade is usually a pulp board manufactured with a good surface suitable for printing and writing.

Inkjet Printing
A printer that sprays drops of ink onto the substrate to form an image. Drop on demand inkjet shoots out single drops of ink, while continuous inkjet sprays a constant stream of small droplets.

Ink Fade
Variation in ink density or uneven ink film.

Ink Rub
A defect often associated with matt coated papers, in which parts of a dried ink film are removed by pressure or friction from another surface.

A printing process using a recessed image, e.g. gravure.

A synonym for colour saturation.

Integrated Mill
A mill that starts with log or wood chips and produces wood pulp, which it then processes to make paper or board without intermediate drying.

ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation)
The body responsible for framing and publishing international standards. ISO is not an acronym; it comes from the Greek word ‘isos’, meaning ‘equal’.

ISO 14001
An international environmental standard that provides a framework for the development of a management system.

ISO 9001
An international quality standard for industry defining the structure of an organisation, its obligations and authorisations, the structure of production and its ability to manufacture products or to produce services at a continuous quality level in conformity with the standard.

ISO Brightness
The brightness of paper and board measured at a wavelength of 457 nanometres under standard conditions.

A set of test targets for the colour characterisation of scanners and printers. Established by ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Committee IT8 for Digital Data Exchange Standards.

Ivory Board
High quality board with a bright, clear appearance, particularly used for high class printed work. Original ivory board was, and still is, made in Holland (Dutch Ivory Board), although the grade is now made in many countries.